October 28, 2014

Why Red Mesa's Redskins don't matter

During the recent anti-Redskins protests in Phoenix, owner Dan Snyder bused in some Navajo students from remote Red Mesa. The reason: Their school nickname is the Redskins.

Critics have made much of the fact that some Native schools have a Redskins nickname and mascot. For instance:

In Arizona, a Navajo high school emerges as a defender of the Washington Redskins

Dan Snyder and the Navajo Nation: It’s complicated

Red Mesa Navajo High School Moniker Erupts In Redskins Favor Amid Debate

Dear Deeply Offended Redskins Haters: Actual Navajo Nation High School Mascot IS REDSKINS

Note: Love how the right-wing "education editor" in the last article thinks he's telling us something. Actually, the Native use of "Redskins" has been part of the debate for decades.

In her Native Appropriations blog, Adrienne Keene tackles the first article by Washington Post writer Ian Shapira. Her main point is that it isn't just the name, but the effects of the name, that mascot foes object to. Things like this:





Keene goes on to explain how Native schools that use the Redskins name aren't fostering the same racist stereotyping:

Missing the point on the Red Mesa Redsk*nsYou would never, ever see any of this at Red Mesa, or at any of the schools they are playing in sports. Because they’re Native. They would be dishonoring and disrespecting their communities and relatives. The name doesn’t have the same weight and urgency, or any weight and urgency, because, to them, it’s self-referential. They have control over the name and image, they have the right and power to do with it what they want. If they want to change it, they can. Clearly, not the case outside of the Navajo Nation.

This is the context that is important. To be clear, I don’t think that any school should have the Redsk*ns as a mascot.* But I respect the decision of the Red Mesa school officials, given the context of their school.

I also hate the constant dichotomy of rez Natives (therefore the “real” ones) and off-rez Natives on the mascot issue. The reason some folks on the rez don’t care as much (which is also a dangerous stereotype, cause many of the lead activists in this, Amanda Blackhorse included, live on or near reservations) is because they aren’t faced with all these examples I showed above on a daily basis. We in the city have to walk down the street and encounter this racism everyday, and we’re separated from the counter-narratives and counter-representations that would surround us if we lived in our communities. Many of us don’t have easy access to our ceremonies, our aunties, our grandmas, our land–the things that show us we aren’t the harmful stereotypes we see at the sports arena. Folks on the rez do have those counter-examples, surrounding them at all times. Additionally, if you only interact with other Native people everyday, no one is going to call you a redsk*n as a slur.

But those on reservations also have deep, real, and life-or-death challenges, that many of us in urban settings don’t have to face everyday. Which brings us to the “bigger issues” argument. Broken record time, for those who read the blog often:

Yes, unequivocally, we have big things to tackle in Indian Country. We have pressing and dire issues that are taking the lives of our men and women everyday, and I am in absolutely no way minimizing this reality. But we also live in a state of active colonialism. In order to justify the genocide against Native peoples in this country, we must be painted as inferior–that’s the colonial game. These images continue that process. The dominant culture therefore continues to marginalize our peoples, to ignore and erase our existence. We are taught everyday, explicitly in classrooms, and implicitly through messages from the media, that our cultures are something of the past, something that exists in negative contrast to “western” values, and something that can be commodified and enjoyed by anyone with $20 to buy a cheap plastic headdress. These stereotypical images like mascots feed into this ongoing cycle, and until we demand more, our contemporary existence (and therefore the “real” problems in Indian Country) simply doesn’t exist in the minds of the dominant culture.

How can we expect mainstream support for sovereignty, self-determination, Nation Building, tribally-controlled education, health care, and jobs when the 90% of Americans only view Native people as one-dimensional stereotypes, situated in the historic past, or even worse, situated in their imaginations?

October 27, 2014

Burial Ridge in Blacklist

In last week's episode of The Blacklist, titled The Front, (airdate: 10/20/14), the FBI team discovers several historical "facts":

  • That the Black Death was caused not by bubonic plague but by the more virulent pneumonic plague;

  • That a priest infected himself with the last sample of pneumonic plague to keep it from others;

  • That the priest fled to the New World a century before Columbus, where he died;

  • That the priest was buried at an Indian site called Burial Ridge on Staten Island;

  • That his bones were moved "31 miles east" to the site of the Trinity Church in lower Manhattan.

  • One reviewer rightly criticized this scenario:[T]he whole secret about a cadre of 4 priests in the 1300s taking the body of a colleague that contained a weaponized virus developed by the Byzantines and the Ottomans in the 13th century and then those priests stashing the body in a Indian burial ground on Staten Island before New York was even discovered (let alone before Columbus' time) is far fetched for even for a Clive Cussler novel, let alone in this show.

    Plus I'm not to sure if the writers really grasp the whole concept of distance and direction, but 31 miles east of anywhere on Staten Island does not put you in lower Manhattan near the Freedom Tower, they should have been looking somewhere several miles east of JFK. Do the writers not think of things like that when they type this nonsense on their Macbooks sitting in Starbucks?
    Native lore

    Yeah, this isn't the show for a Da Vinci Code type of treasure hunt. Even so, I checked and learned some of these things are real:

    Burial RidgeBurial Ridge is a Native American archaeological site and burial ground located at Ward's Point--a bluff overlooking Raritan Bay in what is today the Tottenville section of Staten Island. The first documented evidence of Paleo-Indians using the site is from the end of the Early Archaic Period 8,000 years ago. The burial ground--used by the Lenape dating from the Woodland period until relinquishing Staten Island to the Dutch--is the largest pre-European burial ground in New York City and is today unmarked and lies today within Conference House Park.

    The agents called Burial Ridge the largest burial ground in "New York." If they meant the city, that's correct.

    I don't know if the site's location is supposed to be secret, but FBI and the terrorists knew where to find it.

    The Trinity Church is 29.7 miles from Conference House Park. That's close to 31 miles, but the direction is north-northeeast, not east.

    Pneumonic plague is real too:

    Pneumonic plaguePneumonic plague, a severe type of lung infection, is one of three main forms of plague, all of which are caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis. It is more virulent and rare than bubonic plague. The difference between the versions of plague is simply the location of the infection in the body; the bubonic plague is an infection of the lymphatic system, the pneumonic plague is an infection of the respiratory system, and the septicaemic plague is an infection in the blood stream.I don't think it acts like the plague in The Blacklist, but the show covered itself by saying the terrorists genetically manipulated the bacteria.

    The FBI agents didn't have much time to ponder things during the plague panic. Fortunately, the infected terrorists stupidly put themselves on planes where the authorities could intercept them.

    But I was waiting for the agents to discuss the historical implications of their discoveries. "Europeans discovered the Western Hemisphere a hundred years before Columbus. Everything we know about world history since the Middle Ages is wrong!"

    Alas, that never happened. Maybe another episode will explore the profound consequences of overturning the Columbus "myth."

    Anyway, it was good to see a bit of Native lore in a network TV show. And mostly accurate lore, too.

    October 26, 2014

    Stereotypical Dark Shaman comic book

    "Dark Shaman #1" Comic Review

    By James FergusonThere are all kinds of evil beings within the Grimm Universe. Prepare to meet a new one in Dark Shaman. This time around, we're dealing with an ancient Indian burial ground or rather an evil Native American shaman that feeds on innocent blood for some unknown reason. The four-issue mini-series has Grimm Fairy Tales matriarch Sela Mathers shoehorned at the beginning as she goes shopping and is told of the story behind a strange tapestry.

    The comic then jumps to the story featuring a group of co-eds going on the worst beach vacation ever. Things get a little confusing as one of the girls bears a striking resemblance to Sela. Is she in the story? Is this just something else? Anyway, this Dark Shaman shows up and basically wants to kill people. That's really what's going on. The book is set up like a generic slasher movie with a group of stereotypical twenty-somethings that are meant to be cannon fodder for the villain.

    One of the kids has a tie to the tribe that the Dark Shaman comes from, but it's unclear exactly how they're connected. There's no real reason that this guy is killing people to begin with. I'm sure that innocent blood tastes great, but there are plenty of other options when it comes to a decent meal. Have you tried the Doritos Loco Taco? It's friggin' delicious.

    I wish there was more I could say about this Native American murderer, but there's really not much else to go on. He rises from the depths because of some idiots that got too close to a haunted tree. (This marks the third haunted tree I've seen in comics in the past two weeks, by the way. See also Wytches and Sabrina.)




    Comment:  The Timucua named in the story were a real people who lived in Florida. Some details on them:

    TimucuaThe Timucua were an American Indian people who lived in Northeast and North Central Florida and southeast Georgia. They were the largest indigenous group in that area and consisted of about 35 chiefdoms, many leading thousands of people.

    By 1700, the population of the tribe had been reduced to 1000. Warfare against them by the English colonists and native allies completed their extinction as a tribe soon after the turn of the 19th century.

    The Timucua were a semi-agricultural people and ate many foods native to North Central Florida. They planted maize (corn), beans, squash and various vegetables as part of their diet.

    Spanish explorers were shocked at the height of the Timucua, who averaged four inches or more above them. Timucuan men wore their hair in a bun on top of their heads, adding to the perception of height.

    Each person was extensively tattooed. The tattoos were gained by deeds. Children began to acquire tattoos as they took on more responsibility. The people of higher social class had more elaborate decorations.
    Florida Lost Tribes--Theodore MorrisThe Timucua Indians were spread across parts of northern Florida and southeastern Georgia. Their territory was large and consisted of many different environments. Beaches, salt marshes, and forests thrived near the Atlantic coast. Rivers, lakes, swamps, and woodlands covered inland areas. The Timucua were not a single tribe, but rather separate groups, who spoke dialects or types of the Timucua language. For example, the Mocama dialect was spoken by the coastal Timucua near Jacksonville, while the Potano dialect was spoken by the inland Timucua near Gainesville.

    Because of Florida’s hot climate, the Timucua wore little clothing. Men dressed only in deerskin breechcloths. Their long black hair was tied in topknots, and their faces and bodies were decorated in brightly colored markings. Some of these tattoos were permanent, while others could be washed away. Women wore skirts of Spanish moss. Their long hair hung loose down their backs. Some women also had tattoos. Both men and women wore bracelets and necklaces of animal bone, teeth, and shell. Colored bird feathers might be placed in their hair during special events. Animal fur capes or robes provided warmth in the winter.
    Below:  Timucua Indians painted by a non-Indian based loosely on the evidence:




    Judging by this review, the comics aren't totally stereotypical. The Timucua were scantily clad with facial markings. They had burial grounds--or at least buried their dead in the ground. There are no Timucua alive today, but other Indians live in the area and may claim descent from them. A few Timucua artifacts may reside in museums.

    But that's about it. The "dark shaman" in Satanic robes on the first cover above is false. In fact, most Indian tribes, including the ones in Florida, didn't have shamans. Moreover, shamans aren't some sort of wizard who practices black magic. We don't know much about the Timucua religion, but I doubt it was involved in anything "dark" such as human sacrifice.

    So the basic premise of this series is false. It's also stereotypical because it's been done hundreds if not thousands of times. Indeed, a revenge-seeking Indian spirit is the most common Native trope in the horror genre. It's so old and clichéd that it's mind-boggling to see someone using it again. Give it up, copycat creators, and do something original for once.

    For more on Indian burial grounds, see Stereotypical Deadskins Video Game.

    October 25, 2014

    Tulalip Indian shoots "Tomahawk" students

    Most reports on the tragic murders at Marysville-Pilchuck High School noted that Jaylen Fryberg was a member of the Tulalips Tribes--an Indian. None suggested that his Indian status was a cause of the shooting spree--except this one:

    Jaylen Fryberg Is Not Your Indian Savage

    By Missus WrackspurtIf you’ve spent any time among Natives in their own communities, you realize quickly that a Native kid living among his people will invariably grow up learning how to feed his family (whether that’s hunting or farming or gathering). This is normal in our Native societies and an important way we pass down cultural teachings.

    But that explanation doesn’t rate as news precisely because it doesn’t fit into the narrative of Natives the Western world is primed to accept. The image associated with Native men is that of an aggressive warrior or savage. Redskin. Chief. Indian. Brave. Seminole. Fighting Sioux.

    We are mad. We are bloodthirsty. We will stop at nothing to win. We’re told these images of us used by sports teams are honorific. Be proud, we’re told. We’re honoring the only part of you we can accept: The way you looked centuries ago when we defeated you. But, hey, your team wins and gets millions in advertising so let’s just ignore the unrestrained racism on your helmets.

    For those of us who have spent years studying the effects of mascots and Native representation in mass media, it’s no coincidence that Jaylen turned to violence when his own football team was the Marysville-Pilchuck Tomahawks, a nickname that came under fire several times over the past couple of decades as school boards across the country became hip to the fact Native-associated mascots are damaging in ways that utterly dehumanize and erase Native youth identities.


    Claims debated

    Missus Wrackspurt seems to be making two claims. One, that the media characterized Fryberg as an Indian warrior or "savage." And two, that Fryberg thought of himself as a warrior or savage.

    I read a lot of the news coverage. I didn't see any sign of the first claim.

    Showing him with a gun is what the media would've done with a shooter of any race. It's not an image tied to his being Native.

    An early posting on Fryberg's background was this one:

    Jaylen Fryberg: 5 Fast Facts You Need to Know

    It noted he owned guns and was an Indian, but didn't dwell on these facts or combine them into a "warrior" or "savage" meme. I'd say this was the norm for the reporting on this story.

    As for Wrackspurt's second claim, it's impossible to know without knowing Fryberg's history and psychology. But it's not uncommon for minority shooters to feel angry because they think society has prevented them from achieving the American dream.

    In any case, Missus Wrackspurt's readers criticized her claims and she defended them in the comments:Student
    I knew jaylen, and despite all of your “research” this was not a crime born from racism. Natives are 100% equals at our school, generally being very well liked, as jaylen was. This crime was not the result of bullying as you seem to think. Now, nobody but his family who may or may not have read a suicide note that he may have left knows for sure, but from every knowledgable source I have heard ANYTHING from, this was completely the result of a severe depression from relationship problems. I know that your post was in good taste and had no bad intentions, however I think you are over looking possible serious mental disorders this child may have had and are instead placing partial blame on things such as school mascots. Ask any native person in OUR community and you will see clearly that natives were extremely well respected in our city and one horrible decision/incident does not reflect on us as a whole.

    Missus Wrackspurt
    Student: I am so sorry for your loss. My prayers to you, your family and community.

    Nothing about my commentary was in any way related to who Jaylen was as a person, positive or negative. Obviously, I don’t know him. Will never know him. His motives were his own and unknowable, as they are for all individuals.

    That said, I am constantly looking at the intersections of race and society, especially as those issues relate to Indian Country, because I work with Native youth and understand the struggles they face, even if they might not know some of the *systemic* causes themselves. If you are willing to learn more, please check out the links toward the end of my piece. This “research” is scientific, nonpartisan, and proved over and over again. In this scenario, systemic racism IS mascots, IS the media’s portrayal of Jaylen, as a teen, as an outdoorsman, and as a tribal citizen. We must address these issues and have these conversations if we want things to get better. As a mother, this is of the utmost importance to me.

    Thank you for taking the time to read and comment.

    Anna
    OUR community not yours! this is not a native issue. Do not let it become one

    Missus Wrackspurt
    I’d normally trash a comment like this, because it adds nothing to the conversation. But since you’re the millionth person to say this to me in the last two days (and since you didn’t call me a derogatory word – thanks), I’m putting it up to say it is indeed a Native issue. You are part of the problem in erasing Native identity with comments like this. Do better, Anna, which for people like you means shutting up and listening to the many marginalized voices trying to tell you how to make things incrementally better.
    Comment:  Without knowing anything, I'd speculate that the warrior mentality prevalent in Native cultures did influence Fryberg. Being a football player, a homecoming prince, and a Tomahawk all may have contributed to a toxic sense of entitlement.

    That is, he may have felt he was an alpha male who deserved the girl (his girlfriend). When he didn't get her, that may have shattered his "warrior" pride and led to the shootings.

    For more on the subject, see Santa Barbara Shootings Show America's Pathology and Dunn Trial Shows America's Pathology.

    October 24, 2014

    Non-Cherokee tattoos honor Cherokee ancestors?

    Santana Moss explains his new Native American-themed tattoo

    By Dan SteinbergSantana Moss got a new tattoo on his leg. It’s kind of large. And pretty evocative.

    “S/o to my Boi @tattzbyd for coming up to bless me wth this Cherokee mural representing my ancestors,” Moss wrote on Instagram.

    Chad Dukes asked Moss for further details this week on his 106.7 The Fan program.

    “I’ve been wanting to do another tattoo for like the last 10 years,” Moss explained, mentioning his Miami-based tattoo artist, tattzbyd. “He does great work. So I’ve been like ‘I want him to do something for me, i just don’t know what.’

    “And one day it just clicked,” Moss went on. “You know, I’ve heard so much about my mom’s side—she [has] a lot of Cherokee Indians in the family, starting back with my grandmother and her mom and their mom—so I just wanted to do something honoring them. And it came about, and I told him what I wanted—look up some chiefs, look up this and that. And he just put a little mural together for me and he went to work on my leg.”

    I heard about Moss’s tattoo because @RedskinsFacts—the team-funded name-defense organization—tweeted about it approvingly. And that will obviously have some people wondering if Moss’s tattoo relates to the NFL franchise. Dukes asked Moss if he was worried about people making that connection.

    “Don’t bother me; I won’t bother you,” Moss said.


    Comment:  Adrienne Keene of Native Appropriations tweeted the following in response:

    Dr. Adrienne K. ‏@NativeApprops
    Hey Santana Moss, this ish isn't even REMOTELY "Cherokee": http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/dc-sports-bog/wp/2014/10/22/santana-moss-explains-his-new-native-american-themed-tattoo/ … WILL IT EVER STOP? Plains stereotypes =/= Cherokee.

    Dr. Adrienne K. ‏@NativeApprops
    Absolutely hilarious this was promoted on @redskinsfacts. So typical of their "facts"...claiming respect/honoring but lacking basic research

    And a comment from Dinah on Facebook:Really? He 'pays tribute' through images that aren't remotely Cherokee? THIS is why we fight this crap!His instructions were: "Look up some chiefs, look up this and that." Glad he's so deeply committed to researching and understanding his supposed Cherokee ancestors.

    The stereotype here, of course, is that all Indians are interchangeable or the same. Wrong.

    Analysis

    From what we can see, the images may have come from romanticized paintings by non-Natives. For instance, by Kirby Sattler, who is infamous for inspiring Johnny Depp's crow head.

    I say paintings because modern Indians generally don't paint stripes on their faces. And old photographs usually aren't this detailed and aren't in color.

    There's also a painted horse, which undoubtedly comes from a Plains tribe. The Cherokee don't have any tradition of painting their horses.

    I'd have been impressed if the tattoos included Sequoyah, John Ross (in suit and tie), Will Rogers, Wilma Mankiller, et al. Because these are among the most famous Cherokees in history.

    But they didn't wear feathers and leathers, didn't paint their faces. They don't look primitive or uncivilized. They wouldn't suggest how "cool" and "tribal" Moss is. And that was Moss's real goal: not to honor actual Cherokees, but to link himself to savage warriors.

    He may have Cherokee blood--although everyone from Elizabeth Warren to Johnny Depp claims that and they're usually wrong. But I'd still call him a wannabe. He's trying to become Indian just as a mascot lover does--by appropriating and imitating someone else's culture.

    October 23, 2014

    "Honoring" savage Indians since 1933!

    Check Out All This Cool Vintage Redskins Gear!!!

    Yikes.

    By Jack Shepard
    I found this super cool vintage Redskins sweatshirt in the back of my closet today and I thought it would be fun to have a look at all the awesome vintage Redskins gear that’s out there!





    Comment:  Who knows? Maybe the first image is supposed a red-skinned potato.

    On the bright side, it appears the team was an early supporters of gay rights, judging by the rainbow flags.

    Here we see exactly what the Washington team has "honored" since it adopted the "Redskins" name in 1933. Namely, the stereotypical idea of Indians as half-naked, warlike savages.

    With their menacing spears and tomahawks and scowls, they'll go on the warpath and kill anyone who opposes them. "Scalp 'em, swamp 'em, we will take 'em big score!"

    This message is in the team's original fight song and it's in their merchandise. The whole concept of "Redskins" is racist and has been from the beginning.

    October 22, 2014

    Killing "terrorists" = killing Indians

    Why do we ignore the civilians killed in American wars?

    By John TirmanWhy the American silence on our wars’ main victims? Our self-image, based on what cultural historian Richard Slotkin calls “the frontier myth”—in which righteous violence is used to subdue or annihilate the savages of whatever land we’re trying to conquer—plays a large role. For hundreds of years, the frontier myth has been one of America’s sturdiest national narratives.

    When the challenges from communism in Korea and Vietnam appeared, we called on these cultural tropes to understand the U.S. mission overseas. The same was true for Iraq and Afghanistan, with the news media and politicians frequently portraying Islamic terrorists as frontier savages. By framing each of these wars as a battle to civilize a lawless culture, we essentially typecast the local populations as the Indians of our North American conquest. As the foreign policy maven Robert D. Kaplan wrote on the Wall Street Journal op-ed page in 2004, “The red Indian metaphor is one with which a liberal policy nomenklatura may be uncomfortable, but Army and Marine field officers have embraced it because it captures perfectly the combat challenge of the early 21st century.”

    Politicians tend to speak in broader terms, such as defending Western values, or simply refer to resistance fighters as terrorists, the 21st-century word for savages. Remember the military’s code name for the raid of Osama bin Laden’s compound? It was Geronimo.

    The frontier myth is also steeped in racism, which is deeply embedded in American culture’s derogatory depictions of the enemy. Such belittling makes it all the easier to put these foreigners at risk of violence. President George W. Bush, to his credit, disavowed these wars as being against Islam, as has President Obama.
    Comment:  For more on the subject, see Indians, Terrorists = US Enemies and Bin Laden Codenamed Geronimo.

    October 21, 2014

    Party City stereotypes Indians

    It's that time of year again: Halloween, when faux Indian costumes fly across the Internet. Here's a typical example:



    What's that word again when you single out one race for its qualities?

    Oh, yeah...racism.

    Amazing how people think nothing of mixing occupations and fantasy figures with an ethnic group.

    But only one ethnic group. Can you imagine blackface costumes for "African Americans"? Or masks with big noses and beady eyes for "Jews"?

    Obviously not. Yet Native costumes are not only conceivable, they're ubiquitous. Which is nothing short of mind-boggling.

    October 20, 2014

    Berlin play features "naked savages"

    Naked Faux Savages and Neo-Racism in Berlin

    By Red HaircrowAt the Ethological Museum’s Humboldt Lab in Berlin, the play Captain Jacobsen recently premiered, featuring a performance by the group Das Helmi that culminated with brightly painted and masked dancers provocatively presenting what was supposed to be Natives of the Northwest during a potlatch feast. The dancers writhed intertwined and rode on each other’s backs in what was described as “a naked orgy of naked savages“ by the museum’s outraged former curator of the North American Collection, Peter Bolz (who retired in 2012). Males wore socks that covered their genitalia but most of the young female dancers were naked as they playfully simulated sexual wildness before an audience that included small children.

    The play is about the ethnologist Adrian Jacobsen, who traveled to the Northwest Coast to trade with the Kwakiutl, Haida and other tribes, and much of his acquired booty is still at the museum to this day. At its premiere in September, the recreation of his adventures received mixed reviews.

    “Part of the audience saw it as an innovative experiment, and part saw it as a form of neo-racism against Native Americans,” said Bolz. “Imagine if representatives of these Indigenous Peoples had been present in the hall. They would immediately leave Berlin under protest and never come back!”

    Other opinions were even more harsh. “Lacking in every respect; coarse, anarchic, ironic, absurd” and “stereotypical and done with low skill” said the review in the The Berliner Zeitung. It said the show was representing “the vulnerability of traditional Indian cultures through contact with the ethnologist (Jacobsen), which was interpreted with anarchic humor by Berlin puppet theater, Das Helmi, whose core brand is ‘Nothing is sacred.’”
    Comment:  For more on stereotypical plays, see Cry, Trojans! in Redface, Play Portrays Ishi as Rapist, Murderer, and Racism in Bloody, Bloody Jackson.

    October 19, 2014

    Stereotypes in Little Golden Books

    From Debbie Reese's American Indians in Children's Literature blog:

    Stereotypes of American Indians in Little Golden BooksIn 1942, Little Golden Books was launched. Among them are several with stereotypes of American Indians and Alaska Natives.

    There are 18 Indians shown on these covers (two on the Bugs Bunny one; none on the Roy Rogers and Little Trapper books). Only 2 are female. One of the two females is... umm... Howdy Doody's "Princess."
    Dueling comments on this posting:Ruth
    I agree with Anonymous. With our eyes and minds of today those books vlrstly show stereotypes. But in those times, it was not viewed / considered this way. Nobody asked themselves if they were stereotyping American Indians or not. Nobody asked if bokks by Countess of Segur were showing stereotypes against little girls. At the time, it was not the case. Your pictures are beautiful and remind me of my childhood. Thank you very much.

    JPM
    Ruth, Another concern with the argument that those depictions were not considered stereotypes "back in the day" but not now is that some people DID recognize the inaccuracies and stereotyping back then, but their perspective was not considered important by the authors and publishers. Their actual voices were silenced even though they were frequently depicted--but they (the Native Americans, Africans and African-Americans, Asians, girls and women, etc.) often did consider those depictions to be problematic.
    Comment:  For more of Reese's analyses, see Rush Revere and the Brave Pilgrims.