By Mario Salazar
For 39 years the boundary dividing the new liberated Chile and the Mapuche remained in place and the treaty conceding the land in the south to the Mapuche was ratified by both Chile and Argentina.
In 1860 the Mapuche nation headed by the troika of Lonkos Kalipan of Gulumapu, Kalfucura of Puelmapu, and Orélie-Antoine de Tounens (a naturalized Mapuche), established a constitutional monarchy on their lands in the Southern Cone of South America. This nation was recognized by several European nations and was for all practical purposes an independent sovereign nation. This new nation was a legitimate free country as recognized by International treaties.
In 1862 the Chilean and Argentinean governments started a war of genocide against the Mapuche nation in violation of International treaties. These treaties included the original one, and one ratified during the years of independence by both Chile and Argentina. The encounters were very bloody and one sided, with Chile and Argentinean forces using superior weapons and having the advantage of numbers. No country in the world came to the aid of the Mapuche Nation. Chile and Argentina finally prevailed in 1865, ending the Mapuche nation as an independent country.
For more on tribal sovereignty, see US = "Baby Country" and Modoc Nation Rips UN Declaration.